Fabrication of Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide (FTO): From experiment to its application in physics learning

Sahrul Saehana, Aqidatul Izzah, Agnes Jois’ Palamba, Darsikin Darsikin, Nor Farahwahidah Abdul Rahman


The paper reports the experiment in the laboratory in making FTO by employing spray pyrolysis methods, its application in DSSC, and its implementation in physics learning. The methodology in this research was mixed methods (experiment and qualitative methods). The experimental section was conducted by dissolving SnCl2.2H2O and NH4F in 96% alcohol and then depositioned on a glass substrate on a hotplate with a temperature of 450◦C using an Omron NE-C28 nebulizer. Spraying was carried out for 20 minutes then characterized morphology (SEM), content (EDS), crystal structure (XRD), transmittance (UV-VIS), and voltage-current (IV). Based on investigations using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy, it is known that transparent conductive SnO2:F particles have been formed. By using XRD, Nanometer-sized crystalline particles have also been identified. Furthermore, the FTO electrode is utilized as an electrode on DSSC and its performance is measured. In the qualitative section, students and researchers were interviewed about the physical aspect of the FTO fabrication process. Then, interview results were used to design laboratory physics learning. 


Adjimi, A., Zeggar, M. L., Attaf, N., & Aida, M. S. (2018). Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Deposition by Sol-Gel Technique. Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology, 08(04), 89–106. https://doi.org/10.4236/jcpt.2018.84006
Al-Sabana, O., & Abdellatif, S. O. (2022). Optoelectronic devices informatics: optimizing DSSC performance using random-forest machine learning algorithm. Optoelectronics Letters, 18(3), 148–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11801-022-1115-9
Arbab, A. A., Ali, M., Memon, A. A., Sun, K. C., Choi, B. J., & Jeong, S. H. (2020). An all carbon dye sensitized solar cell: A sustainable and low-cost design for metal free wearable solar cell devices. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 569(1), 386–401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.02.078
Bandara, T. M. W. J., Aththanayake, A. A. A. P., Kumara, G. R. A., Samarasekara, P., DeSilva, L. A., & Tennakone, K. (2021). Transparent and conductive F-Doped SnO2 nanostructured thin films by sequential nebulizer spray pyrolysis. MRS Advances, 6(16), 417–421. https://doi.org/10.1557/s43580-021-00017-0
Darsikin, Arifin, Z., Nasar, & Saehana, S. (2018). Preliminary Study in Fabricating Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide by Using Spray Pyrolysis Methods. Paper Presented at 7th Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Symposium (NNS), Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 22-23 October (pp. 012015-1–012015-5). https//doi.org/ 10.1088/1757-899X/395/1/012015.
El-Yazeed, W. S. A., Eladl, M., Ahmed, A. I., & Ibrahim, A. A. (2021). Fluorine-doped tin oxide as efficient solid acid catalyst: acidity and the catalytic activity relationship. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 97(1), 191–204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10971-020-05422-9
Elsherif, O. S., Muftah, G. E. A., Abubaker, O., & Dharmadasa, I. M. (2016). Structural, optical and electrical properties of SnO2:F thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis for application in thin film solar cells. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 27(12), 12280–12286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-016-5206-x
Guermat, N., Darenfad, W., Mirouh, K., Kalfallah, M., & Ghoumazi, M. (2022). Super-Hydrophobic F-Doped SnO2 (FTO) Nanoflowers Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis Process for Solar Cell Applications. Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics, 14(5), 05013-1–05013-6. https://doi.org/10.21272/jnep.14(5).05013
Izzah, A., & Saehana, S. (2021). Developing video-based learning for the application of ohm’s law towards conductive transparent layer. Paper Presented at National Seminar of Physics Education, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, 31 October 2020, (pp. 012043-1–012043-8). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1760/1/012043
Mokaripoor, E., & Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M. M. (2015). Study of structural, electrical and photoconductive properties of F and P co-doped SnO2 transparent semiconducting thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 30, 400–405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2014.10.049
Nggadas, D. E. P., & Ariswan, A. (2019). The mastery of physics concepts between students are learning by ICT and laboratory experiments based-teaching. Momentum: Physics Education Journal, 2(1), 21–31. https://doi.org/10.21067/mpej.v3i1.3343
Palamba, A. J., Sari, N., Diah, A. W. M., & Saehana, S. (2021). A preliminary study of DSSC with PEDOT carrageenan as electrolyte system. Paper Presented at National Seminar of Physics Education, Lambung Mangkurat University, Banjarmasin, 31 October 2020 (pp. 012090-1-012090-6). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1763/1/012090
Pinheiro, X. L., Vilanova, A., Mesquita, D., Monteiro, M., Eriksson, J. A. M., Barbosa, J. R. S., Matos, C., Oliveira, A. J. N., Oliveira, K., Capitão, J., Loureiro, E., Fernandes, P. A., Mendes, A., & Salomé, P. M. P. (2023). Design of experiments optimization of fluorine-doped tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis for photovoltaic applications. Ceramics International, 49(8), 13019–13030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2022.12.175
Rahmatika, R., Yusuf, M., & Agung, L. (2021). The Effectiveness of Youtube as an Online Learning Media. Journal of Education Technology, 5(1), 152–158. https://doi.org/10.23887/jet.v5i1.33628
Smith, E. M., & Holmes, N. G. (2021). Best practice for instructional labs. Nature Physics, 17(6), 662–663. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-021-01256-6
Tönbül, B., Can, H. A., Öztürk, T., & Akyıldız, H. (2021). Solution processed glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide/aluminum-doped zinc oxide double layer thin films for transparent heater and near-infrared reflecting applications. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 99(3), 482–496. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10971-021-05591-1
Tuyen, L. T. C., Jian, S. R., Tien, N. T., & Le, P. H. (2019). Nanomechanical and material properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis: Effects of F-doping. Materials, 12(10), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101665
Way, A., Luke, J., Evans, A. D., Li, Z., Kim, J. S., Durrant, J. R., Hin Lee, H. K., & Tsoi, W. C. (2019). Fluorine doped tin oxide as an alternative of indium tin oxide for bottom electrode of semi-transparent organic photovoltaic devices. AIP Advances, 9(8), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5104333
Zhao, X., Deng, Y., & Cheng, J. (2016). Preparation of large-scale SnO2: F transparent conductive film by atmospheric spray pyrolysis deposition and the effect of fluorine-doping. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 11(7), 5395–5402. https://doi.org/10.20964/2016.07.45
Zheng, W., Zhang, Y. N., & Tian, J. Q. (2017). Effect of fluorine doping concentration on semiconductive property of tin dioxide. Chalcogenide Letters, 14(7), 275–281.


Sahrul Saehana
sahrulsaehana@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
Aqidatul Izzah
Agnes Jois’ Palamba
Darsikin Darsikin
Nor Farahwahidah Abdul Rahman
Saehana, S., Izzah, A., Palamba, A. J., Darsikin, D., & Rahman, N. F. A. (2023). Fabrication of Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide (FTO): From experiment to its application in physics learning. Momentum: Physics Education Journal, 7(2), 259–268. https://doi.org/10.21067/mpej.v7i2.8438

Article Details