A systematic review on the fourth industrial revolution: African basic schools' readiness

A systematic review on the fourth industrial revolution: African basic schools' readiness


  • Omotayo Adewale Awodiji University of Johannesburg
  • Ancia Katjiteo University of Namibia




Africa, Basic schools, Competencies, Fourth industrial revolution, Readiness of African basic schools


This systematic review's primary goal is to determine how prepared African basic schools are for implementing 4IR tools and how well-versed in 4IR the teachers in African basic schools are. A systematic review approach was adopted. Data base such as Johannesburg e-library, ProQuest, and Google scholar was used to search for relevant study used.  It was determined that the findings were valid and rigourous through the use of PRISMA. Out 106,859 resource generated, the review included 18 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study highlights the necessity for African basic schools to enhance their preparedness for the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). Funding is crucial to provide the necessary 4IR infrastructures, suggesting the allocation of resources by the African government for procurement and deployment of 4IR tools. Additionally, implementing a program to train teachers and school leaders in 4IR technologies is recommended to enhance their capabilities.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Omotayo Adewale Awodiji, University of Johannesburg




Ancia Katjiteo, University of Namibia




Abdulraheem-Mustapha, M. A. (2021). 4IR and right to education in Nigeria: Synergy between legal instruments and stem education. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(3), 2286–2295. https://doi.org/10.17762/turcomat.v12i3.1198

Albrahim, F. A. (2020). Online teaching skills and competencies. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 19(1), 9-20. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1239983.pdf

Ayanwale, M. A. (2023). Can experience determine the adoption of industrial revolution 4.0 skills in 21st-century mathematics education? Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 8(1), 74-91 https://doi.org/10.46303/ressat.2023.6

Aprianti, V., & Sahid, S. (2020). The Relationship between Teachers’ Competency and Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) Learning among Economics Teachers. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(11A), 63–70. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.082108

Atibuni, D. Z., Manyiraho, D., & Nabitula, A. N. (2022). A Fourth Industrial Revolution Paradigm Shift in Teacher Education? International Journal of African Higher Education, 9(2), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.6017/IJAHE.V9I2.15365

Avelino, M. N., & Ismail, H. H. (2021). Assessing ESL Teachers’ Knowledge and Readiness in Integrating 4IR into Teaching Practices: A Concept Paper. Creative education, p. 12, 2038–2055. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2021.129156

Bush, T. (2022). Reviewing fifty years of EMAL scholarship: Longitudinal perspectives on the journal and educational leadership and management field. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 50(2), 187–191. https://doi.org/10.1177/17411432221077767

Bush, T., Hamid, S. A., Ng, A., & Kaparou, M. (2018). School leadership theories and the Malaysia Education Blueprint Findings from a systematic literature review. International Journal of Educational Management, 32(7), 1245–1265. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-06-2017-0158

Butler-Adam, J. (2018). The fourth industrial revolution and education. South African Journal of Science 114(5-6), 1-1. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2018/a0271

Enaifoghe, O. A., Balogun, T., & Afolabi, S. O. (2020). Migration, the socio-economic and political development: The South African experience. African Renaissance, 17(2), 103–127. https://doi.org/10.31920/2516-5305/2020/17N2A5

eLearning Africa, & Hub, E. (2020). The Effect of Covid-19 on Education in Africa and its Implications for the Use of Technology A Survey of the Experience and Opinions of Educators and Technology Specialists. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4018774

Gkoros, D., & Bratitsis, T. (2022). E-Leadership and Distance Education in Greece during Covid-19 Pandemic. Management in Education, 089202062210816. https://doi.org/10.1177/08920206221081611

Glukhov, V. V., & Vasetskaya, N. O. (2017). Improving the teaching quality with a smart-education system. Proceedings of 2017 IEEE 6th Forum Strategic Partnership of Universities and Enterprises of Hi-Tech Branches (Science. Education. Innovations), SPUE 2017, 2018-Janua, 17–21. https://doi.org/10.1109/IVFORUM.2017.8245958

Gururaja, C. S. (2021). Teacher’s attitude towards online teaching. National Virtual Conference "New Education Policy: A Quality Enhancer for Inculcation of Human Values in Higher Education Institutions, July, 397–405. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/353336812_Teachers_Attitude_towards_Online_Teaching

Hallinger, P., Gümüş, S., & Bellibaş, M. Ş. (2020). “Are principals instructional leaders yet?” A science map of the knowledge base on instructional leadership, 1940–2018. Scientometrics, 122(3), 1629–1650. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11192-020-03360-5/FIGURES/5

Ilori, M. O., & Ajagunna, I. (2020). Re-imagining the future of education in the era of the fourth industrial revolution. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 12(1), 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-10-2019-0066

Kamal, T., & Illiyan, A. (2021). School teachers’ perception and challenges towards online teaching during COVID-19 pandemic in India: an econometric analysis. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, 16(3), 311–325. https://doi.org/10.1108/aaouj-10-2021-0122

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., Kereluik, K., Shin, T. S., & Graham, C. R. (2014). The technological pedagogical content knowledge framework. In Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 101–111). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3185-5

Koopman, O. (2023). The fourth industrial revolution: teachers' views on integrating digital technologies as a 21-century teaching strategy. African Perspectives of Research in Teaching & Learning (APORTAL), 6(3). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/369962427

Li, G., Hou, Y., & Wu, A. (2017). Fourth industrial revolution: Technological drivers, impacts and coping methods. Chinese Geographical Science, 27(4), 626-637. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11769-017-0890-x

Madida, M., Naidoo, G. M., & Rugbeer, H. (2020). Barriers to effective digital teaching in rural schools. Gender and Behaviour, 17(4), 14101–14115. https://doi.org/10.4314/gab.v17i4.

Mduduzi, M., & Saurabh, S. (2022). Learning curve: Harnessing the Fourth Industrial Revolution begins with education - ProQuest. https://www.proquest.com/docview/2633567363/4866549093124359PQ/64?accountid=188730

Mhlanga, D. (2021). The Fourth Industrial Revolution and COVID-19 Pandemic in South Africa: The Opportunities and Challenges of Introducing Blended Learning in Education. Journal of African Education, 2(2), 15–42. https://doi.org/10.31920/2633-2930/2021/V2N2A1

Mhlanga, D., & Moloi, T. (2020). COVID-19 and the digital transformation of education: What are we learning on 4ir in South Africa? Education Sciences, 10(7), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10070180

Mpungose, C. B. (2020). Student Teachers’ Knowledge in the Era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Education and Information Technologies, 25(6), 5149–5165. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10639-020-10212-5

Mtshali, T. I., & Ramaligela, S. M. (2020). Contemporary employability skills needed for learners to succeed in the civil technology field in the 4IR era. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 12(3), 29–40. https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/JTET/article/view/6325

Naidoo, V. & Potokri, C. O. (2021). Female School leaders and the fourth industrial revolution in South Africa. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 15(10), 162–180. https://www.ijicc.net/images/Vol_15/Iss_10/151015_Naidoo_2021_E1_R1.pdf

Naidoo, J., & Singh-Pillay, A. (2020). Exploring mathematics teachers' professional development: embracing the fourth industrial revolution. Universal Journal of Educational Research 8(6), 2501-2508. https://doi: 10.13189/ujer.2020.080634

Nets, M. (2017). Professional development of school principals in the pilot program of “pedagogical flexibility”: The Israeli Case. Economics and Culture, 14(2), 12–21. https://doi.org/10.1515/jec-2017-0014

Oke, A., & Fernandes, F. A. P. (2020). Innovations in teaching and learning: Exploring the perceptions of the education sector on the fourth industrial revolution (4IR). Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/JOITMC6020031

Olaitan, O. O., Issah, M., Wayi, N., & Olaitan, O. (2021). A framework to test South Africa’s readiness for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. South African Journal of Information Management, 23(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.4102/SAJIM.V23I1.1284

Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T. C., Mulrow, C. D., Shamseer, L., Tetzlaff, J. M., Akl, E. A., Brennan, S. E., Chou, R., Glanville, J., Grimshaw, J. M., Hróbjartsson, A., Lalu, M. M., Li, T., Loder, E. W., Mayo-Wilson, E., McDonald, S., … Moher, D. (2021). The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. Systematic Reviews, 10(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/S13643-021-01626-4/FIGURES/1

Penprase, B. E. (2018). The fourth industrial revolution and higher education. In N. W. Gleason (ed.) Higher Education in the Era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, pp. 207-229. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore.

Rashid, S., & Yadav, S. S. (2020). Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Higher Education and Research. Indian Journal of Human Development, 14(2), 340–343. https://doi.org/10.1177/0973703020946700

Kadira, R. B. A., Saidb, T. S. A., & Thangaveluc, L. (2020). IR 4.0 knowledge and readiness of lecturers at the Teachers Education Institute, Technical Education campus, Malaysia. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 11(11), 1-29. https://www.ijicc.net/images/Vol11Iss11/111115_Kadir_2020_E_R.pdf

Sithomola, T. (2021). The manifestation of dual socio-economic strata within the South African schooling system a setback for congruous prospects of 4IR. African Journal of Public Affairs, 12. https://doi.org/10.10520/EJC-AJPA_V12_N3_A7

Sikhakhane, M., Govender, S., & Maphalala, M. C. (2021). The extent of south African schools' preparedness to counteract 4ir challenges: Learners' perspectives. Journal of E-Learning and Knowledge Society, 17(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.20368/1971-8829/1135265

Skhephe, M., Caga, N. P., & Boadzo, R. M. K. (2020b). Accounting teachers’ readiness for E-learning in the fourth industrial revolution: A case of selected high schools in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Perspectives in Education, 38(1), 43–57. https://doi.org/10.18820/2519593X/PIE.V38I1.4

Steele, L. M., & Watts, L. L. (2022). Managing technical innovation: A systematic review of 11 leader functions. Technovation, 115(May), 102539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2022.102539

Tshabalala, M. N. & Mavuru, L. (2022). Utilising ICT to address language challenges in life sciences classrooms. Education and New Developments, 313-317. https://doi:10.36315/2022v2end071

Uleanya, C. (2022). Scholarly discourse of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) and education in Botswana: a scoping review. Education and Information Technologies, pp. 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10639-022-11298-9/TABLES/1

Uleanya, C., & Ke, Y. (2019). Review of preparedness of rural African communities nexus formal education in the fourth industrial revolution. South African Review of Sociology, 50(3–4), 91–103. https://doi.org/10.1080/21528586.2019.1639074

Varol, F. (2013). Elementary school teachers and teaching with technology. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12(3), 85-90. http://www.tojet.net/articles/v12i3/1238.pdf

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425–478. https://doi.org/10.2307/30036540

Xing, B., & Marwala, T. (2017). Implications of the fourth industrial age on higher education. The Thinker, 73(3), 10–15. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3225331




How to Cite

Awodiji, O. A., & Katjiteo, A. (2023). A systematic review on the fourth industrial revolution: African basic schools’ readiness. Jurnal Bidang Pendidikan Dasar, 7(2), 192–208. https://doi.org/10.21067/jbpd.v7i2.8565