Development of 2-D augmented reality integrated physics e-book to improve students' problem-solving skills

Veronika Yeni Setyo Tri Nugraheni, Mundilarto Mundilarto


This study aims to produce an augmented reality integrated e-book that is feasible to improve the problem-solving skills of 11th graders; identify the improvement of 11th graders problem-solving skills after using the augmented reality integrated e-book. Problem-solving as a way of obtaining solutions to difficulties is divided into four indicators, which are: understanding the problem, making plans, implementing plans, and reviewing solutions. Data collection techniques consist of tests, questionnaires, observations, and documentation using instruments that support the Research and Development (R&D) technique with a 4D model. Research subjects were selected by simple random sampling with 34 students of 11th graders. In this study, questionnaires were used for validation, observations were made to determine the condition of students, and documentation was used as evidence in conducting research. The data were analyzed quantitatively based on the results of the validation and analysis of pretest and posttest items. The results showed that the augmented reality integrated e-book is feasible to use based on the results of validation using the average value conducted by a very high category validator, and the validation value obtained is 3.79. The improvement of problem-solving skills was analyzed using Normalized Gain, and the improvement of problem-solving skills got a score of 0.8 in the high category.


Akçayir, M., Akçayir, G., Pektaş, H. M., & Ocak, M. A. (2016). Augmented reality in science laboratories: The effects of augmented reality on university students’ laboratory skills and attitudes toward science laboratories. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 334–342.
Ambarwati, D., Suyatna, A., & Ertikanto, C. (2019). The effectiveness of interactive e-book for self-study and increasing students’ critical thinking skills in electromagnetic radiation Topic. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1155(1), 012050.
Astuti, F. N., Suranto, S., & Masykuri, M. (2019). Augmented Reality for teaching science: Students’ problem solving skill, motivation, and learning outcomes. JPBI (Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia), 5(2), 305–312.
Becker, S., Klein, P., Gößling, A., & Kuhn, J. (2020). Using mobile devices to enhance inquiry-based learning processes. Learning and Instruction, 69(August 2019), 101350.
Bower, M., Howe, C., McCredie, N., Robinson, A., & Grover, D. (2014). Augmented Reality in education - cases, places and potentials. Educational Media International, 51(1), 1–15.
Cai, S., Chiang, F. K., Sun, Y., Lin, C., & Lee, J. J. (2017). Applications of augmented reality-based natural interactive learning in magnetic field instruction. Interactive Learning Environments, 25(6), 778–791.
Cai, S., Wang, X., & Chiang, F. K. (2014). A case study of Augmented Reality simulation system application in a chemistry course. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 31–40.
Caleon, I., & Subramaniam, R. (2010). Development and application of a three-tier diagnostic test to assess secondary students’ understanding of waves. International Journal of Science Education, 32(7), 939–961.
Carbonell Carrera, C., & Bermejo Asensio, L. A. (2017). Augmented reality as a digital teaching environment to develop spatial thinking. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 44(3), 259–270.
Dewi, F. H., Samsudin, A., & Nugraha, M. G. (2019). An investigation of students’ conceptual understanding levels on fluid dynamics using four-tier test. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1280(5).
Docktor, J. L., & Mestre, J. P. (2014). Synthesis of discipline-based education research in physics. Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research, 10(2), 020119.
Elfeky, A. I. M., & Elbyaly, M. Y. H. (2021). Developing skills of fashion design by augmented reality technology in higher education. Interactive Learning Environments, 29(1), 17–32.
Guntur, M. I. S., Setyaningrum, W., Retnawati, H., & Marsigit. (2020). Can augmented reality improve problem-solving and spatial skill? Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1581(1).
Hake, R. R. (1999). Analyzing change/Gain scores.
Hamzah, M. L., Ambiyar, A., Rizal, F., Simatupang, W., Irfan, D., & Refdinal, R. (2021). Development of augmented reality application for learning computer network device. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (IJIM), 15(12), 47.
Harun, Tuli, N., & Mantri, A. (2020). Experience Fleming’s rule in electromagnetism using augmented reality: Analyzing impact on students learning. Procedia Computer Science, 172(2019), 660–668.
Ibáñez, M. B., Di Serio, Á., Villarán, D., & Delgado Kloos, C. (2014). Experimenting with electromagnetism using augmented reality: Impact on flow student experience and educational effectiveness. Computers and Education, 71, 1–13.
Ince, E. (2018). An overview of problem solving studies in physics education. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(4), 191.
Ismail, A., Festiana, I., Hartini, T. I., Yusal, Y., & Malik, A. (2019). Enhancing students’ conceptual understanding of electricity using learning media-based augmented reality. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1157(3), 1–6.
Karagozlu, D. (2018). Determination of the impact of augmented reality application on the success and problem-solving skills of students. Quality & Quantity, 52(5), 2393–2402.
Koutromanos, G., Sofos, A., & Avraamidou, L. (2015). The use of augmented reality games in education: a review of the literature. Educational Media International, 52(4), 253–271.
Kowsalya, D. N., Lakshmi, V., & Suresh, K. P. (2012). Development and validation of a scale to assess self-concept in mild intellectually disabled children. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 2(4), 2223–4934. 2 Issue 4, 2012/paper 16/Abstract-16.pdf
Kravtsov, H., & Pulinets, A. (2020). Interactive augmented reality technologies for model visualization in the school textbook. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2732, 918–933.
Leinonen, R., Asikainen, M. A., & Hirvonen, P. E. (2013). Overcoming students’ misconceptions concerning thermal physics with the aid of hints and peer interaction during a lecture course. Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research, 9(2), 1–22.
Lieung, K. W., Rahayu, D. P., & Yampap, U. (2021). Development of an interactive e-book to improve student’s problem solving. Ilmiah Sekolah Dasar, 5(1), 8–15.
Mohammed, M. A. E., & Rahman, S. A. A. (2015). The effect of interactive E-Book on students’ achievement at Najran University in computer in education course. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(19), 71–83.
Ogundeji, O. M., Madu, B. C., Onuya, C. C., & State, E. (2020). Scientific explanation of phenomenon, imagination and concept formation as correlates of students’ understanding of physics concepts. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 10(3), 10–19.
Pólya, G. (2014). How to solve it: A new aspect of mathematical method. Princeton University Press.
Rani, S. A., Wiyatmo, Y., & Kustanto, H. (2017). Concept attainment worksheet to enhance concept knowledge and science process skills in physics instruction. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 6(2), 326–334.
Siegenthaler, E., Wurtz, P., & Groner, R. (2010). Improving the usability of e-book readers. Journal of User Experience, 6(1), 3:25–3:38.
Turan, Z., Meral, E., & Sahin, I. F. (2018). The impact of mobile augmented reality in geography education: achievements, cognitive loads and views of university students. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 42(3), 427–441.
Xu, M., Fralick, D., Zheng, J. Z., Wang, B., Tu, X. M., & Feng, C. (2017). The differences and similarities between two-sample t-test and paired t-test. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 29(3), 184–188.


Veronika Yeni Setyo Tri Nugraheni (Primary Contact)
Mundilarto Mundilarto
Nugraheni, V. Y. S. T., & Mundilarto, M. (2022). Development of 2-D augmented reality integrated physics e-book to improve students’ problem-solving skills. Momentum: Physics Education Journal, 6(2), 171–180.

Article Details